Republic Day is celebrated every year in India on January 26 to honour the Constitution of India replacing the Government of India Act (1935). On November 26, 1949, the Indian Constitution was adopted by the Indian Constituent Assembly but was legally enforced only after two months on January 26, 1950, with a democratic government system and has now survived 7 decades.
Even after Independence on August 15, 2020, India was depended on the Government of India Act 1935 which is a modified version of the British law. Then just after 2 weeks later only, August 29, 1947, the drafting committee was appointed where Dr B R Ambedkar was the chairman.
This year, 2020, India will be celebrating its 71st Republic Day!
Here we have shared some amazing facts you should know about the Indian Constitution.
Indian Constitution is the Longest Constitution in the World
The Indian Constitution is the longest written constitution of any country on earth that sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. At about 145,000 words, it had 450 articles which are divided into 22 parts and 12 schedules. It started with 395 articles and 8 schedules.
Dr Ambedkar, Father of the Indian Constitution, Was Ready to Burn It
Father of the Indian Constitution, Dr BR Ambedkar told this in the Rajya Sabha on September 2, 1953, while debating how a Governor in the country should be invested with more powers.
“My friends tell me that I have made the Constitution. But I am quite prepared to say that I shall be the first person to burn it out. I do not want it. It does not suit anybody. But whatever that maybe if our people want to carry on they must not forget that there are majorities and there are minorities and they simply cannot ignore the minorities by saying, “Oh, no. To recognize you is to harm democracy.” I should say that the greatest harm will come by injuring the minorities”
The Whole Constitution is handwritten!
The original Constitution is handwritten by Prem Behari Narain which took 6 months. It was neither Typed nor Printed. He used 254 pen-holder nibs of NO.303 and followed Raizada, italic style with beautiful calligraphy.
Prem Behari Narain didn’t even ask for any remuneration. Just requested to write his name on every page of the constitution and on the last page, the name of his grandfather with his name.
The Constitution of India has a Preamble
The constitution has a preamble also known as “FACE OF THE CONSTITUTION”. The preamble sets out the aims and aspirations of the people of India that declares India to be Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic, and secures to all its citizens Justice, Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.
Constitution has been amended 104 times
There have been 104 amendments as of January 2019 in Indian Constitution since it was first enacted in 1950. In the first 62 years, only 94 times the Constitution was amended.
Each Page of Constitution Was Decorated By Artists from Shantiniketan
The artwork of the Constitution was decorated by artists from Shantiniketan including Nandalal Bose Beohar and Rammanohar Sinha, along with his students.
Acharya Nandalal Bose in Kala Bhawan, Shantiniketan, painted the major images and guided his students in designing other artwork.
The preamble was decorated by one of Nandalal Bose’s student, Beohar Rammanohar Sinha.
Time Taken To Write Indian Constitution
It took almost three years (two years, eleven months and seventeen days) constitution to draft the constitution with the help of 389-member assembly which got reduced to 299 after the partition of India. The assembly holds eleven sessions over a 165-day period where 2,473 amendments were moved, discussed and disposed of out of a total of 7,635.
B.R. Ambedkar studied the constitutions of about 60 countries
As a wise constitutional expert and also known as Father of Constitution of India, B.R. Ambedkar has studied the constitutions of about 60 countries.
Fundamental Rights Guaranteed by the Indian Constitution
Part III of the Constitution of India guarantees the ‘Fundamental Rights’ to all the citizens of India that includes:
- Right To Equality – Articles 14, 15, 16,17, 18
- Right To Freedom- Articles 19, 20, 21, 22
- Right To Exploitation- Articles 23 and 24
- Right To Freedom of Religion- Articles 25 to 28
- Cultural And Educational Rights- Articles 29 and 30
- Right To Constitutional Remedies- Article 32
When And Where Constitution was Published
The Indian of the constitution was published in Dehradun and photolithographed by the Survey of India. It became the law of India on January 26, 1950. The final session was convened on January 24, 1950, where two copies of the constitution were signed by each member, one in Hindi and the other in English.
A ‘Bag of Borrowings’: Constitution of India
The Constitution of India is often known as “Bag of Borrowings” as the provisions are borrowed from various foreign constitutions. This includes:
- The Ideals of Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality came from the French Constitution.
- Five year plans concept came from the Constitution of USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics).
- The “procedure established by Law” was borrowed from the Constitution of Japan.
- During the Emergency rule, the fundamental rights will be suspended: concept came from Weimar Constitution of Germany.
- “We the People”: the concept is taken from the US Constitution’s Preamble.
- Freedom of Trade, Concurrent list, and Service within Country” are inspired by the Australian Constitution.
- Powers of the federal jury and Office of the Governor are taken from from the Govt. of India Act 1935.
- Elections of the President of India, Directive Principles concept are taken from the Irish Constitution.
The Lion Capital of Ashoka was adopted on the same day
On January 26, 1950, India adopted the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath with the wheel, horse and bull as the National Emblem of India.
The day when the Constitution was signed
It was drizzling outside on the day when the Constitution was assigned and was interpreted as a sign of good omen.
November 26, is not only the date
Every year the Constitution Day is celebrated on November 26 to spread the importance of the constitution and spread thoughts and ideas of Ambedkar. It was declared by the Government of India on November 19, 2015, as Constitution was adopted on the same date on 1949.
January 26, is not only the date
The date of January 26, was chosen because it coincided with Purna Swaraj’s anniversary (January 26, 1930).